Generally, none. New York used to use the terms conservator (today’s version of guardian of the property) and committee (today’s version of guardian of the person). Many states still use the term conservator, but the concept is the same.
No. Even if you are the “petitioner” – the person who is asking the judge to appoint a guardian – you can ask the judge to appoint someone else. If there are no family or friends willing and able to serve, the judge can appoint a non-profit organization or “independent” professional guardian to serve.
No (except for limited exceptions). In New York, parents are the natural guardians of their children until age 18. However, once a child reaches 18, even if they are developmentally or intellectually disabled, a parent cannot automatically make decisions for their adult child. Guardianship is often necessary for developmentally and intellectually disabled adults who do not have capacity to manage their own affairs without assistance.
There is no set time. However, from the time counsel is retained, it usually takes about 2-4 months total for the guardian to begin acting. However, if a guardian is needed immediately, the judge can appoint a “temporary guardian” while everything gets sorted out. This speeds up the process.
A Kinship Proceeding in New York Surrogate's Court is necessary primarily in two circumstances:
First, a Kinship Proceeding is often necessary when it is unclear who is entitled to inherit from a deceased person's estate. In New York, a deceased person is called a "decedent".
Second, a Kinship Proceeding is sometimes required to determine who will serve as administrator of an estate when the decedent died without a will and it is unclear who has the right to serve as administrator above all others. An "administrator" is like an executor of an estate of a person who died without a will. Dying without a will is known as dying "intestate".